Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease, is the most frequent monogenic cause of renal failure in childhood. There are four forms of nephronophthisis caused by mutations in four different genes. Clinically, there is a statistically different age at onset at end-stage renal disease: terminal renal failure develops at median ages of 13 years, 1 year, 19 years, and 11-34 years in NPHP1, NPHP2, NPHP3, and NPHP4 respectively. Hallmarks of familial nephronophthisis are tubular basement membrane disruption, interstitial lymphohistiocytic cell infiltration, and development of cysts at the corticomedullary border of the kidneys. The histology in later stages of NPH always merges into a chronic sclerosing tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which is found in chronic renal failure of all origins.
In one study, individuals with infantile nephronophthisis (NPHP2) presented within the first months of life with severe renal failure and acidosis, which could be associated with hypertension and/or polyuria and/or severe cholestatic liver disease. A renal biopsy, performed in all patients, showed similar features characterized by a diffuse chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and particularly by the presence of microcystic dilatation of proximal tubules and Bowman space. Progression of the renal disease was extremely rapid and patients can reach end-stage renal failure before the age of 2 years (11 to 22 months).
In another study, phenotypic presentation ranged from a Potter-like syndrome to hyperechogenic kidneys, renal insufficiency, hypertension, and hyperkalemia. Affected individuals showed rapid deterioration of kidney function, leading to end-stage renal failure within 3 years. The manifestations range from prenatal fetal oliguria and oligohydramnios resulting in postnatal respiratory failure and death to postnatal onset of disease later than 30 months of age. None of the postnatally diagnosed patients had a history of either oligohydramnios or neonatal respiratory symptoms. All affected individuals developed anemia, hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis, and increased serum creatine. None of the affected subjects had polyuria, polydypsia, or associated ocular or hepatic complications.
The specific clinical features of this disease are its early onset and rapid progression to end-stage renal failure. Pathologically, it differs from later-onset nephronophthisis by the absence of medullary cysts and thickened tubular basement membranes and by the presence of cortical microcysts. NPHP2 is caused by mutations in the INVS gene (also known as NPHP2) (9q31). The protein product of the INVS gene, inversion, has been shown to interact with that of the NPHP1 gene, nephrocystin.
For patients with suspected infantile nephronophthisis, sequence analysis is recommended as the first step in mutation identification. For patients in whom mutations are not identified by full gene sequencing, deletion/duplication analysis is appropriate.
Click here for the OMIM summary on this condition.
This test is indicated for:
- Confirmation of a clinical/biochemical diagnosis of infantile nephronophthisis
- Carrier testing in adults with a family history of infantile nephronophthisis
Clinical Sensitivity: Unknown. Mutations in the promoter region, some mutations in the introns and other regulatory element mutations cannot be detected by this analysis. Large deletions will not be detected by this analysis. Results of molecular analysis should be interpreted in the context of the patient's biochemical phenotype.
Analytical Sensitivity: ~99%
Submit only 1 of the following specimen types
Preferred specimen type: Whole Blood
Type: Whole Blood
Specimen Requirements:In EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube:
Infants (<2 years): 2-3 ml
Children (>2 years): 3-5 ml
Older Children & Adults: 5-10 ml
Specimen Collection and Shipping: Refrigerate until time of shipment. Ship sample within 5 days of collection at room temperature with overnight delivery.
Specimen Requirements:OrageneTM Saliva Collection kit (available through EGL) used according to manufacturer instructions.
Specimen Collection and Shipping: Store sample at room temperature. Ship sample within 5 days of collection at room temperature with overnight delivery.
Submit copies of diagnostic biochemical test results with the sample, if appropriate. Contact the laboratory if further information is needed.
Sequence analysis is required before deletion/duplication analysis by targeted CGH array. If sequencing is performed outside of Emory Genetics Laboratory, please submit a copy of the sequencing report with the test requisition.
- Deletion/duplication analysis of the INVS genes by CGH array is available for those individuals in whom sequence analysis is negative.
- Custom diagnostic mutation analysis is available to family members if mutations are identified by targeted mutation testing or sequencing analysis.
- Prenatal testing is available to couples who are confirmed carriers of mutations. Please contact the laboratory genetic counselor to discuss appropriate testing prior to collecting a prenatal specimen.