Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB, Sanfilippo syndrome type B), is a member of a group of inherited metabolic disorders collectively termed mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). The MPSs are caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes required for the degradation of mucopolysaccharides or glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) within the lysosome. When functioning normally, the lysosomal enzymes break down these GAGs, however when the enzyme is deficient, the GAGs build up in the lysosomes causing damage to the bodys tissues. The MPSs share a chronic progressive course with multisystem involvement, characteristic physical features, laboratory findings, and radiographic abnormalities. MPS IIIB is an autosomal recessive caused by deficiency of the alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase enzyme and build up of heparin sulfate.
Clinical features of MPS IIIB begin in childhood with hyperactivity, aggressiveness, and developmental delays. Mental abilities decline as the disease progresses. Involvement of other organ systems tends to be mild and dysmorphic features are more subtle than those observed in other type of mucopolysaccharidosis . A small number of late onset cases have been reported.
MPS IIIB is caused by mutations in the NAGLU gene, but is clinically indistinguishable from MPS IIIA, MPS IIIC, and MPS IIID, which are caused by mutations in other genes. All four forms of MPS III result in buildup of the same GAG, heparin sulfate. Diagnostic sequencing analysis of the NAGLU gene coding region is available for MPS type IIIB patients and their at-risk relatives on a clinical basis.
For questions about testing for MPS IIIB, call EGL Genetics at 470-378-2200. For further clinical information about lysosomal storage diseases, including management and treatment, call the Emory Lysosomal Storage Disease Center at (404) 778-8565 or (800) 200-1524.
References: 1). Muenzer, J., The mucopolysaccharidoses: a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable pediatric presentations. J Pediatr, 2004. 144(5 Suppl): p. S27-34.
2). Beesley, C.E., M. Jackson, E.P. Young, A. Vellodi, and B.G. Winchester, Molecular defects in Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB). J Inherit Metab Dis, 2005. 28(5): p. 759-67.
3). Beesley, C., M. Moraitou, B. Winchester, K. Schulpis, E. Dimitriou, and H. Michelakakis, Sanfilippo B syndrome: molecular defects in Greek patients. Clin Genet, 2004. 65(2): p. 143-9.
4). Tanaka, A., M. Kimura, H.T. Lan, N. Takaura, and T. Yamano, Molecular analysis of the alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene in seven Japanese patients from six unrelated families with mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (Sanfilippo type B), including two novel mutations. J Hum Genet, 2002. 47(9): p. 484-7.
- Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis of MPS IIIB
- Prenatal testing for known familial mutations.
- Assessment of carrier status in high risk family members - known mutation analysis.
DNA isolated from peripheral blood is hybridized to a CGH array to detect deletions and duplications.
The targeted CGH array has overlapping probes which cover the entire genomic region.
Detection is limited to duplications and deletions. Array CGH will not detect point mutations or intronic mutations. Results of molecular analysis must interpreted in the context of the patient's clinical and/or biochemical phenotype.
Infants and Young Children (<2 years of age): 2-3 ml
Children > 2 years of age to 10 years old: 3-5 ml
Older Children & Adults: 5-10 ml
Autopsy: 2-3 ml unclotted cord or cardiac blood
Isolation using the Perkin Elmer™Chemagen™ Chemagen™ Automated Extraction method or Qiagen™ Puregene kit for DNA extraction is recommended.
- Mucopolysaccharide screen (urine GAG) (GA)
- Gene Sequencing for MPS IIIA (AW) and MPS IIID (BH)
- Known mutation analysis (Custom Diagnostics) is available to test family members.
- Prenatal testing is available for known familial mutations only. Please call the Laboratory Genetic Counselor for specific requirements for prenatal testing before collecting a fetal sample.