Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) deficiency, also known as myoadenylate deaminase (MADA) deficiency, is a disorder of purine metabolism that leads to a deficiency in the production of ATP. It is the most common enzyme deficiency identified in muscle, with a prevalence of almost 2% in the general population. The typical age of presentation is late adolescence to early adulthood. Affected individuals have generalized exertional muscle pain, cramps and fatigue. Other presenting features include post-exertional myoglobinuria and rhabdomyolysis. Completely asymptomatic individuals have also been reported.
Serum creatine kinase (CK) is usually normal or only slightly elevated. Aerobic exercise testing is typically normal. Muscle histology is normal but muscle histochemistry shows reduced AMPD1 enzyme activity. AMPD1 deficiency is caused by mutations in the AMPD1 gene (1p21). AMPD1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive condition.
Two mutations, c.133C>T (p.Q45X, previously known as p.Q12X) and c.242C>T (p.P81L, previously known as p.P48L), account for the majority of reported mutations in Caucasians and African Americans. Full gene sequence analysis is also available for individuals with documented AMPD1 deficiency when no or one mutation identified by common mutation testing.
Click here for the OMIM summary on this condition.
- Brian A. van Adel, et al. Metabolic Myopathies: Update 2009. J Clin Neuromusc Dis. 2009, 10(3): 97-121.
This test is indicated for:
- Confirmation of a biochemical or clinical diagnosis of AMPD1 deficiency
- Carrier testing in adults with a family history of AMPD1 deficiency
Orangene™ Saliva Collection Kit used according to manufacturer instructions. Please contact EGL for a Saliva Collection Kit for patients that cannot provide a blood sample.
Isolation using the Perkin Elmer™Chemagen™ Chemagen™ Automated Extraction method or Qiagen™ Puregene kit for DNA extraction is recommended.
Infants and Young Children (<2 years of age): 2-3 ml
Children > 2 years of age to 10 years old: 3-5 ml
Older Children & Adults: 5-10 ml
Autopsy: 2-3 ml unclotted cord or cardiac blood
Submit copies of diagnostic biochemical test results with the sample, if appropriate. Contact the laboratory if further information is needed.
- Full gene sequence analysis of the AMPD1 gene is available if common mutation testing does not identify two mutations in a clinically and biochemically affected individual.
- A two-tiered rhabdomyolysis panel that includes testing for the two common AMPD1 mutations is also available.
- Custom diagnostic mutation analysis (KM) is available to family members if mutations are identified by targeted mutation testing or sequencing analysis.
- Prenatal testing is available to couples who are confirmed carriers of mutations. Please contact the laboratory genetic counselor to discuss appropriate testing prior to collecting a prenatal specimen.